I am assuming you have read most the post in basic belief system of Islam on this site before coming here http://reconstructingthestrangers.com/category/belief-system-and-basic-concepts/ ; If not then please do take a look to make more sense of this argument.
It the same thing like having child study through 1,2,3 .. to 10th grade , we don’t teach 10th grade first because a child develops to be able to comprehend
Similarly Allah send religion, books and lots of prophets according to human development of that era and no prophet and book ( as far as I know) claims to be for eternity and people to come other than Islam and Muhammad since than Allah decided to send the final book and messenger. In Quran Allah claims that there is no region that he did not send his prophets to guide people to the right path and towards him
So in Islam you would find text concerning both Judaism and Jesus (AS) and explaining that Jews were the favorite nation to Allah but they keep denying prophets so Allah ( as he wills) send the last prophet in Arabs instead of in their league. As a Muslim we respect all the three religions and all the prophets send by God and consider them with same respect as Muhammad PBUH. Also the last book revealed Quran also comes complying with the fact that all prophets are send by Allah and so are the books and religions
28:48 But when the truth came to them from Us, they said, “Why was he not given like that which was given to Moses?” Did they not disbelieve in that which was given to Moses before? They said, “[They are but] two works of magic supporting each other, and indeed we are, in both, disbelievers.” Say, “Then bring a scripture from Allah which is more guiding than either of them that I may follow it, if you should be truthful.” But if they do not respond to you – then know that they only follow their [own] desires. And who is more astray than one who follows his desire without guidance from Allah ? Indeed, Allah does not guide the wrongdoing people. And We have [repeatedly] conveyed to them the Qur’an that they might be reminded.
Also I am assuming you have read through this http://reconstructingthestrangers.com/belief-system-and-basic-concepts/kufur-and-shirk/; it complies that on day of Judgment people would be judge based on their Shirk that is after knowing truth ( wherever they end up based on their abilities and circumstances) how much they end up following so it’s not necessary Muslims will not be punished and vice versa followers of other faiths can end up in the heaven